Sunny stroke: Symptoms and first aid
With the onset of summer, even in cold climates, the probability of a sunstroke increases. What leads to the emergence of this problem and how to deal with it?
How does a sunstroke occur?
The sunstroke (helioz) is a painful reaction of the vessels and substances of the central nervous system, primarily the brain, to the effect of prolonged insolation. The most dangerous direct sunlight, falling on the naked head. As a result, the local temperature rises, arterial vessels expand, and the venous network remains in the same state.
Blood in large quantities arrives in the brain, and the outflow of it decreases. The result is an edema of the brain and stagnation of blood in the cavity of the skull.
The immediate cause of heliosis is the direct influence of sun rays. However, this morbid condition does not always arise. It is provoked by the following factors:
- High humidity of the environment;
- Ambient temperature is not less than 25 degrees;
- Dark hair color or lack thereof;
- Age of a person – children under 2 years old and elderly people are more likely to suffer;
- The presence of chronic diseases of the brain and the cardiovascular system – a history of stroke, neuro-circulatory dystonia, ischemic heart disease;
- Alcoholic intoxication.
Close on the principle of impact on the human body is heat stroke. Its main difference is that it arises from the increase in the temperature of the whole body as a result of overheating. Suffers from a thermal shock is not so much the brain as the heart, respiratory system and digestive system. The influence of solar rays in the case of a thermal shock is possible, but it can appear even in cloudy weather under the influence of an overall high temperature background.
Symptoms of sunstroke
For the appearance of a clinical picture, a rather long stay in the sun is necessary. The more intense exposure to sunlight, the heavier the symptomatology of the disease state. The main manifestations are as follows:
- Severe headaches;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Sharply raised the temperature background of the scalp and hair;
- Pallor of the skin and hyperemia of the face;
- Severe weakness.
With a light stream of helios, consciousness is not lost. After helping a person can independently move and quickly comes to normal. However, in severe forms of illness, consciousness is lost, convulsions appear, breathing is disrupted, heart rate is increasing. With the continuing exposure to the sun, death inevitably occurs due to the inhibition of the activity of the respiratory center of the brain, since the pathological process can not be stopped.
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Sunstroke usually occurs suddenly, against a background of complete human health. However, sometimes you can see the first signs of impending trouble. These include:
- Unusual weakness and lethargy;
- Impossibility to adequately support the conversation in the company;
- Refusal to eat;
- If it is a child, he becomes sluggish and whiny;
- Nausea may appear.
Even simple bathing at this moment can stop the pathological process, and a sunstroke does not arise. For the heliosa, the time interval is important, the exposure to direct sunlight should last at least 30 minutes. Any change in the behavior of an adult or child is always alarming in terms of the appearance of a sunstroke. Even if it is not dangerous in itself, the ailment provokes decompensation of existing chronic diseases. Increased risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, as well as hypertensive crisis. Therefore, for elderly people, as well as those suffering from chronic diseases of the circulatory system, any stay in the sun with an uncovered head should be strictly limited.
What to do at home
If you do not take immediate medical measures, then inevitably you will die. Therefore, the most important condition for a sun stroke to pass without consequences is the rightly rendered first aid.
The main action is the immediate cessation of the sun’s action on the victim’s body. To do this, it is enough to take the patient into the shade. Further measures are aimed at reducing the temperature response of the body and reducing intoxication. After exposure to direct sunlight has ceased, it is important to do the following:
- On your head apply a napkin, moistened with cold water, then change it every 5 minutes;
- To give a drink to a victim, as the vomiting passes rather quickly;
- Ensure the flow of air and remove all unauthorized persons to facilitate the breathing of the patient;
- To let in a couple of ammonia;
- Take the paracetamol tablet inside.
If the patient has an uncontrollable vomiting, then after it is placed in the shade, immediately release the oral cavity from the food masses. To quickly stop the vomiting, you can put a domperidone pill under the tongue. This safe preparation will completely relieve the nausea within a few minutes, which will provide the patient with a comfortable state.
In any case, even with an improvement in the condition of the victim, it is necessary to call an ambulance. Medical staff will assess his condition from a medical point of view, if necessary, provide transportation to a medical institution.
How to avoid sunstroke
The higher the activity of sunlight, the more likely to get heliosis. Therefore, the main preventive direction is limiting the person’s stay in the sun in the period from 12 to 16 hours. An additional protection is even a simple light headpiece, which protects from direct sunlight. Being in a zone with a humid climate and a high ambient temperature, it is important to consume more fluids that are better chilled. The total amount of drinking for an adult should approach 3.5 liters per day. In the presence of cardiovascular diseases stay in the sun should be limited to 1.5 hours a day.
When observing simple rules, it is almost always possible to avoid a sunstroke. If any symptoms of malaise appear, immediately leave the sun exposure zone until you feel better.